Climate change from year to year is a certainty. Natural changes occur along with the development of civilization and the increasing number of people who inhabit the earth. Therefore, the preservation of the environment due to climate change is not only the responsibility of one country, but the entire countries on the earth.

Climate change from year to year is a certainty. Natural changes occur along with the development of civilization and the increasing number of people who inhabit the earth. Therefore, the preservation of the environment due to climate change is not only the responsibility of one country, but the entire countries on the earth.

This awareness inspired the formation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The formation of this world-class institution began at the meeting the Earth Summit on 3 to 14 June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which was attended by the representatives of 172 countries. The conference was attended by 35,000 participants, including heads of state, researchers, NGOs, journalists, academics, and other concerned parties.

The main issue discussed at that time was environmental issues, including global warming, destruction of forests and endangered species, as well as the development of environmentally friendly industries. One of the most phenomenal results of the conference was the formulation of an international framework on climate change, or better known as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

This institution has the goal of improving cooperation on an ongoing basis by holding conferences made through bilateral, regional and multilateral forums or meetings, such as the G8, G20, and the MEF (Major Economic Forum) and also with a number of international nongovernmental organizations, representatives of states or countries, and community organizations.

ccording to the Chairman of the Indonesian President’s Special Envoy for Climate Change and Chief Executive of the National Council on Climate Change Indonesia Rachmat Witoelar, UNFCCC is an independent agency and not part of the United Nations. The highest authority of the UNFCCC is held by the member meetings performed each year and known as the Conference of Parties (COP) since 1995.

COP is led by a president who in turn is headed by representatives from each region or district of the UN, namely Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe and Middle East Section, Western Europe and other regions. And, Rachmat Witoelar is the President of COP 13/CMP 3, held in Bali, Indonesia, in 2007.

Two Bodies of UNFCCC

UNFCCC has two permanent bodies, each of which handles a particular matter. The first body is a science and technology advisor or the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA). This body has a responsibility to give feedback or suggestions on the COP in the fields of science, technology and methodology. The main task of this body is to promote the development and transfer of environmentally friendly technologies and do the technical work as well as improving the guidelines in preparing national communications and emission inventories

In addition, SBSTA also plays an important role as a link between the scientific information provided by experts in the IPCC and policy oriented towards the needs of the COP. This body also often asks other scientific information to the IPCC and also cooperates with more relevant international organizations to share information on sustainable development.

The second body is the implementing agency or the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI). SBI is responsible in terms of providing advice to the COP in all matters relating to the application of the convention. Its main task is to examine the inventory information from national

communications and emission inventories issued by member countries with the aim to assess the effectiveness of the convention as a whole.

If we look at the history, in COP 1 and COP 2, there were almost no meaningful agreements in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). While, at COP 3, the event became the arena of the struggle negotiations between Annex 1 countries such as the United States, Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and Australia, which first emit greenhouse gases (GHG) since the industrial revolution in the 1850s with developing countries which are vulnerable to climate change.

“Developed countries have an interest in the development of the country that they cannot be separated from the energy consumption of the electricity sector, transportation, and industry. To accommodate the interests between the two parties, The Kyoto Protocol is the only international agreement to commit to reducing greenhouse gas emissions which regulates the emission reductions more firmly and with a legal binding” said Rahmat Witoelar.

At the time of the annual meeting of the supreme authority in the UNFCCC to-3 (Conference of Parties 3 – COP) held in Kyoto (Japan), a set of rules called the Kyoto Protocol was adopted as an approach to reducing GHG emissions. The interests of the protocol are to set GHG emissions reduction of all countries that ratify (adopt) rules. The Kyoto Protocol was set on December 12, 1997, approximately three years after the Convention on Climate Change, to negotiate how countries ratifying the convention should begin to lower their GHG emissions.

Countries that ratify this protocol commit to reduce emissions or release CO2 and five other greenhouse gases, or to cooperate in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases, which have been linked to global warming. If successfully implemented, the Kyoto Protocol is expected to reduce the average global temperature between 0,02C and 0,28C in 2050.

Indonesia Have DNPI

In Indonesia, the overcoming of climate change problem is undertaken by the central government, local government, private sector, civil society, education, individuals and other stakeholders.

To coordinate the implementation of the climate change and to strengthen Indonesia’s position in the international forum in the climate change control, The Government of Indonesia established a National Climate Change Council (DNPI) through the Indonesian Presidential Regulation No. 46 Year 2008. The institute was by former Environment Minister era 2004-2009, Prof. Rachmat Witoelar.

According to Rachmat, the vision of the institution is to realize a low carbon development that is able to adapt to climate change with the support of funding and transfer of appropriate technologies.

Based on Presidential Decree No. 46 In 2008, duties and functions of DNPI include: formulate national policies, strategies, programs and practices to control climate change; coordinate activities in the implementation of climate change control tasks which include adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer and financing;, formulate a mechanism for setting policies and procedures for carbon trading; carry out monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of climate change policies; and strengthen Indonesia’s position to encourage developed countries to take more responsibility in controlling climate change.